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Full text of "Our communal health [serial]"

Our 

Communal HealtK 

PUBLISHED BY THE 
CONSOLIDATED BOARD OF HEALTH 
OF 

Wilmington and ISJeNV Hanover Count}) 
NortK Carolina 




1-9-3-6 



From the North East River to Federal Point, and from 
the Cape Fear to the Sea — City, Suburb, Village 
and Farm — we are one people striving 
for healthful and useful living — 



of t|)e 

CHnitjer^itp of jQortI) Carolina 




Collectiun of jRortfi Carolmiana 




This hook must not 
he taken from the 
Lihvavy huildin^. 



LUNC-5M Je.36 
OP-12824 



OUR COMMUNAL HEALTH 
For the Year 1936 



New Hanover County Board of Health 
Wilmington, North Carolina 

Gentlemen: 

I hereby submit to you the report of the activities of the Health Department, as 
summarized by the head of each administrative division, for the year 1936. 

The number of deaths caused by the various diseases and the age at which our citizens 
died are presented in tables and graphs covering the year 1936 and the preceding years 
in order that results of public health activities may be evaluated in terms of disease pre- 
vention and extension of the span of life. In Table No. 1, the deaths which have occurred 
in Wilmington and rural New Hanover county are tabulated according to the cause, 
race, sex, and age. In Table No. 2, you will find a comparison between data of the year 
1936 and the years that have gone before it. The crude death rates are given in Table 
No. 3 and expressed graphically in Fig. No. 1. The tabluation of births and of communi- 
cable diseases is given in Tables No. 4 and 7 respectively. 

None of the communicable diseases visited us during the past year in epidemic pro- 
portions. Reference to mortality records, Table No. 1, will show no deaths from small- 
pox, measles, or scarlet fever. Excluding non-residents, we had one death each from 
typhoid, diphtheria, and whooping-cough. 

Diphtheria 

In our comment on diphtheria last year we said in part: "It is encouraging to report 
not only no deaths from diphtheria but only 8 cases. Of this number only 5 occured 
within the city. We like to feel that this is a result of the continuous effort of pedia- 
tricians and the Health Department to secure early immunization against this dreaded 
- disease. We may have this record marred at any time, but if the parents of young child- 
ren will give their support and cooperation we can put diphtheria in a class with smallpox." 
and "For the first time in the history of the department, we have gone two consecutive 
years without a death from diphtheria." 1936 gives a much.less optimistic report. We 
had one death and 62 (13 non-resident) cases of diphtheria. The only comfort we can 
find here is that there was a general statewide increase in the prevalence of diphtheria. 
Some authorities have implied that this increase in diphtheria indicates a lack of per- 
severance in our efforts in immunization against diphtheria, but I am sure such an ex- 
planation does not apply in Wilmington and New Hanover county. We are stressing 
immunization at the age of six months and are urging the Schick test on all preschool 
children examined (unless they are known to be immune). It is a pleasure to report 
that the cooperation of the parents of preschool children in this respect is almost 100%. 

Typhoid Fever 

Reference to Fig. No. 3 and Table No. 7 will show 2 non-resident and 6 resident 
cases of typhoid reported with 1 death. Of 24 cases of typhoid occurring during the 
three years prior to 1936, 21 were within the city and were colored. In 1936, we had 
one white and 2 colored t3^hoid patients in the city and 1 white and 2 colored in the 
county. 

For the past two years we have had our colored nurses hold numerous small inocula- 
tion clinics at colored homes, churches, and lodges within the city in an effort to reach 
those who will not come to the Health Department Clinic. Having only 2 colored 
cases within the city, as compared to a yearly average of 7 for the past three years, 
may indicate that this method is producing results. All the county cases were near each 
other, and the first case was in a man who traveled about over the state quite a bit. 

^^ [ 1 ] 

c 
m 



Measles 



When we observe that measles epidemics return rather consistently at three or four 
year intervals, we may expect an epidemic probably in 1938 or 1939. To our lay readers 
we urgently recommend the use of convalescent serum in the case of very young or very 
frail children whenever the epidemic comes. 

Tuberculosis 

Tuberculosis stood fifth from the top among the causes of death, which was a serious 
increase over last year. There were 39 resident deaths from this cause in 1936 as com- 
pared to 29 in 1935. There will always be some variation from year to year, but a 34% 
increase is much more than should be explained by yearly variation. In our 1932 report 
there was this comment: "We are fearful of what may be expected in the near future 
from tuberculosis among the negro population as a result of under-nourishment, exposure, 
etc., due to the financial depression and unemployment." This and many other factors 
probably enter into this problem. Negroes were the chief sufferers. Within the city, 
15 out of 18 were negroes; in the county 16 out of 21. 

The tuberculin test is used freely in our clinic and is offered each year to seniors in 
the white and colored high school. It is also recommended to frail children, contacts, 
and suspects in the under classes. 

The State Sanatorium furnished us a trained clinician and fleuroscope without cost 
to conduct a one-week free tuberculosis clinic for adults. These examinations were by 
appointment and practically every appointment was taken. 

No reference to the control of tuberculosis here is complete without special comment 
on the Red Cross Sanatorium. This little sanatorium, supported partly by City-County 
funds and partly by philanthropy, is more and more becoming a thoroughly equipped, 
highly specialized hospital for the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. Many border- 
line cases could well afford to take advantage of the facilities offered here. From a 
public health standpoint this institution's greatest value is its equipment for collapse 
therapy. This is the most rapid method of changing a positive sputum into a negative 
one and is therefore a great protection to the general public as well as to the individual 
patient. 

Our district nurses make several hundred visits to tuberculosis patients each year. 

Parent-Teacher Associations provide milk and sometimes lunches for under-privi- 
I eged children with glandular or childhood type of tuberculosis. 

The use of the tuberculin skin test and the X-Ray cannot be over emphasized because 
early diagnosis is the all important factor in the prevention and cure of tuberculosis. 

Entero-Colitis 

Fig. No. 4 expresses graphically the decline in the deaths due to entero-colitis under 
two years. Deaths from this cause have been reasonably low for the past ten years. If 
we exclude non-residents, there were only 3 deaths in the city and none in the county in 
1936. This should be encouraging to our pediatricians, public health nurses, and dairy 
inspector, as they constantly stress the importance of sterilization, pasteurization, and 
strict cleanliness in the preparation and handling of food for infants and young children. 

Pellagra 

One death only was assigned to pellagra during the year. This is the best record 
we have had in many years, however, there were 21 cases reported. Our department is 
helped very much by the home demonstration agent in teaching the importance of a 
balanced diet in curing and preventing pellagra. 

Malaria 

Malaria did not cause any deaths during the year, nor were there any malaria sur- 
veys made. Through a survey in 1935 (and from patients treated in 1934 and 1935) we 
found quite a bit of malaria in the Middle Sound and Scott's Hill sections. During 1936, 
however, we did not have any special trouble with malaria in these sections. As a result 
of our findings in 1934 and 1935, the W. P. A. malaria control officials have done extensive 
drainage work in this vicinity. Many miles of malaria control ditches and canals have 
been dug by the Federal Relief Projects. This work with reasonable maintenance should 
be a valuable aid in preventing malaria for many years. 

[ 2 ] 



Poliomyelitis 



Not a single case of poliomyelitis was reported during the year. The whole state 
was comparatively free from this disease, as might have been expected after the alarming 
epidemic of the preceding year. Epidemics of this disease are usually followed by one 
to several years of almost complete freedom from it. 

Meningococcic Meningitis 

For the first time in the history of the department, we were threatened with an out- 
break of meningitis. Actually, we had only 14 resident cases reported. These occurred 
at intervals from March to November, inclusive. The cases were confined to the colored 
race. Of the 14 cases, 9 died (exclusive of one death in January of a case reported in 
1935). The all important factor in treatment-early diagnosis-was made impossible 
in many of the cases because of the failure of the family to call a physician early. The 
cases varied markedly from the usual in two respects. Most of them occurred in May, 
June, and July (10 out of 14) instead of in cold weather, and the patients were much 
older than one would expect. This disease is supposed to attack chiefly children and 
young adults. We had one case 66 years old, 2 in their fifties, and 2 in their thirties. 
The ones who recovered were 7, 8, 10, 14, and 14. 

Infant Mortality 

Table No. 5 will show that prematurity was responsible for 43.2% of the deaths of 
infants under one year of age and considerably more than half of these infants died before 
they were one week old. Including non-residents, 74 babies died before they were one 
year old and 41, or 54%, died before they were one week old. This indicates that the 
problem is one of obstetrics and not of pediatrics. Special effort is made in our clinic, 
by our district nurses, and by the State Board of Health through literature, to teach 
expectant mothers the importance of careful medical attention during the whole period 
of pregnancy as well as during delivery. We must remember that many of these women 
cannot afford the proper food, rest, and housing conditions. Many of them have hard 
work added to poverty and exposure. In many cases, such circumstances explain the 
extreme frailty of the offspring. 

The federal government has furnished our clinic a part-time registered nurse who 
has charge of prenatal patients. She takes a personal interest in every case and has 
done a really worthwhile work among these women. Her work is directly under the 
physician in charge of the clinic and all abnormal conditions are referred to him. This 
is a slow, but, we belive, a very effective way to teach proper prenatal care. 

Maternal Mortality 

Care of mothers during delivery is shown in Table No. 6. A glance at this table 
will show that a very high percentage of mothers are attended by physicians and mostly 
in a hospital. 

Table No. 8 gives a record of our maternal deaths from 1914 through 1933 in five- 
year periods, while the record of these deaths for 1934, 1935, and 1936 begins a new 
period. Very little improvement took place in maternal mortality during the twenty- 
year period. Wilmington, along with the whole state and the south generally, has always 
had a rather discouraging maternal mortality record. If we consider the whites only, 
we find that 1936 broke all previous records for improvement with a rate of 3.9, which 
is really going to be hard to improve on. A rate of 11.9 among colored women is still 
discouraging. The hardship and exposure of poverty work their havoc among the mothers 
as well as among the infants referred to under Infant Mortality. We are trying to teach 
indigent mothers the best care within their reach. Our total maternal mortality rate 
for 1936 of 7.2 showed a slight improvement over 1935. 

Degenerative Diseases 

Table No. 1 shows that, as in the past, organic heart disease caused many more 
deaths than any other disease. There may be some encouragement in the fact that 53 
of these people had passed the age of 65, and 48 were in the age group between 45 and 65. 
Deaths from the other degenerative diseases were as follows: Cerebral hemorrhage, 81; 
cancer, 34; and nephritis, 56. In this connection we especially recommend routine 
physical examinations, preventive dentistry, and properly balanced diet. 

[ 3 ] 



I 



Venereal Diseases 



Reference to Fig. No. 20 will show that sj^ihilis and gonorrhea very greatly out- 
number any of the other reportable and supposedly preventable diseases. The contrast 
would probably be even greater if all cases of venereal diseases were reported to this 
department. The report of the assistant health officer will show the number of Wasser- 
manns taken and the number of specific treatments given. 

The new Surgeon General of the U. S. Public Health Service has instituted an in- 
tensive nation-wide drive against syphilis, and has requested a very substantial appro- 
priation for this work. We will, of course, participate in this campaign and try to do 
everything we can within the limit of our share of these funds. 



Reference to Fig. No. 11 will show a most gratifjdng increase in the length of the 
lives of our citizens as is indicated by the average age at death. In the twenty-seven 
year period from 1910 to 1936, the average age at death has increased from approxi- 
mately 31 years to 45 years, a gain of 14 years. 

The care of the indigent sick has been heavy as usual, but the W. P. A. has aided 
greatly in providing nurses, office attendants, and clerical help. 

For the third time in succession our water has been free from salt the whole year, 
thanks to the dykes and tide-gates built around Toomer's Creek with C. W. A. and E. 
R. A. funds. Reference to the sanitary engineer's report will show that the purification 
processes at the water plant have been most efficient. 

The report of the assistant food and dairy inspector shows that our dairies furnished 
milk of excellent quality the whole year. 

It is impossible to enumerate all of the organizations and individuals that helped 
in public health work, but some of the most notable are the Wilmington Star-News in 
giving publicity; the Parent-Teachers Association in sponsoring the round-up of pre- 
school children and in distributing milk to children infected with tuberculosis; the North 
Carolina Sorosis in conducting a baby clinic; the Rotary Club in conjunction with the 
State Department of Vocational Rehabilitation in conducting an orthopedic clinic; 
the Red Cross Sanatorium in the care of tuberculous patients; and the James Walker 
Memorial Hospital in conducting the isolation ward for communicable diseases. 

The reports of the various administrative subdivisions of the department are given 
as follows: 



It is a pleasure to record the loyalty and enthusiasm with which the members of 
our staff and the W. P. A. workers in our department have performed their duties. 



Increased Len^h of Life 



Assistant Health officer 

Sanitary Engineer 

Food and Dairy Inspector 

Assistant Food and Dairy Inspector. 

Diagnostic Laboratory 

Public Health Nurses 

Sanitary Inspectors 

Incinerator.. 

Hospital 

Plumbing Inspector 

Mosquito Commission 



.Page 

-Pages 

.Page 

.Pages 

.Page 

.Page 

.Page 

.Page 

.Page 

.Page 

.Page 



5 

6,7,8 
9 

10,11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
14 
15 
16 



Respectfully submitted, 

A. H. ELLIOT, M. D. 

County Health Officer. 



[ 4 



ASSISTANT COUNTY HEALTH OFFICER'S REPORT 
For the Year 1936 



Clinic Report 





Wmte 


Colored 


iotal 


Number patients treated or examinea in nome 










960 


696 


1,656 


Number patients treated or examined at office 






/ ,4oo 




3,699 


8,129 


11,828 


"NJiiTYiV^f^r T\a1"iP'ni"c fTPQf'Pfi dv PYaminprl pmmf'v iJiil 


93 


81 


174 








123 


Number patients treated or examined, county home 


yy 


ZO 


n c 
iZo 








69 


Number completed antirabic treatments 


1 


1 

1 


z 




3 


6 


9 




144 


149 


293 










"NJiiTYinpT PYQ TYiTnti 1"innc f^nilrl tot TnHnc1"'rv 


17 


9 


26 


Number examinations by court order 


Q 
O 


c 
o 




Number examinations, admissions to institutions 


7 


3 


10 


Number examinations for lunacy 


18 


26 


44 


Number examinations, postmortem 


3 


8 


11 


Number examinations, teachers 


48 


4 


52 


Number obstetrical cases examined 


98 


306 


404 


Number visits by obstetrical cases 


288 


1,057 


1,345 


School children examined for scabies 


38 


8 


46 


Children examined for other diseases 


279 


319 


598 


Number tonsil examinations 


139 


223 


362 


Number Wassermann tests (state laboratory) 


374 


1,130 


1,504 



Number of Foodhandlers Examined 



Food Establishments 152 

Restaurants 95 

Dairies 2 

Hotels 29 

Homes 210 



Total 488 



Venereal Disease Clinic 





Syphilis 


Gonorrhea 


Chancroid 


W 


B 


W 


B 


W 


B 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


New cases attending clinic 


23 


16 


121 


160 


30 


9 


78 


50 


8 





35 




3 


Old cases attending clinic 


135 


153 


427 


726 


11 


5 


11 


16 


1 





6 







Number doses, arsenical- 


257 


197 


835 


1,280 


71 


31 


89 


108 


10 





44 




3 


Number doses, bismuth- 


79 


138 


164 


394 





































Totals for Venereal Diseases 

Syphilis: New Cases, 320 Old Cases, 1,441 / 
Gonorrhea: New Cases, 167 Old Cases, 43 
Chancroid: New Cases, 46 Old Cases, 7 
Respectfully submitted, 

G. R. CARPENTER, M. D. 

Assistant County Health Officer. 

[ 5 ] 



SANITARY ENGINEER'S REPORT 
For the Year 1936 



Dr. a. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 
Wilmington, N. C. 

Dear Sir: 

The report of the sanitary engineer and the laboratory at the city water purification 
plant for the year 1936 is as follows: 

Water Works 

Blue prints giving complete summaries of all laboratory results and operating data 
accompany this report. Some of the most important results are given in the tables 
below. 

Operating Statistics 



Water treated, in millions of gallons.- 936.280 

Chemicals used, in pounds per million gallons: 

Alum. : 226 

Lime 130 

Chlorine 4.8 

Activated Carbon.. 2 . 05 

Wash Water, per cent of water treated 1 .81 

Coal, pounds per million gallons 165 

Power, K. W. H. per million gallons 559 



The figures given for coal and power are for low lift pumping only, based on one-third 
total fuel. 

Cost Data 

(Does not include depreciation, interest, or insurance.) 



Low pressure pumping, labor and materials $ 7,794.17 

Filtration: Chemicals and materials 4,665.38 

Supervision, labor, and laboratory 6 , 975 . 44 



Total cost of purification 19,434.99 

High pressure pumping, labor and materials.- 22,013.23 



Total cost for year 1936 41 ,448.22 

Total cost for year 1935 40,702.05 

Total cost per million gallons, 1936 45 . 08 

Cost of purification per million gallons, 1936 21 . 14 

Cost of high pressure pumping per million gallons, 1936 23.94 

Total cost per million gallons, 1935 44.86 

Cost of purification per million gallons, 1935 21 .38 

Cost of high pressure pumping per million gallons, 1935 23.48 



Cost for the two years 1935 and 1936 were about the same. Power and labor cost 
were slightly higher in 1936. Alum was slightly higher per pound but a lower dosage 
was used. A different method from that used in previous years was used in calculating 
wash water cost. Heretofore the wash water has been figured at the cost of production 
and so entered as one of the expenses of purification. This gave approximately correct 
results in cost per million gallons but made the total cost too high, as the cost of the 
wash water was already included in the expenses of pumping and purification. This 
year no item for wash water was included, but the amount of wash water was subtracted 
from the total amount of water treated and the cost per million gallons figured on this basis. 

[ 6 ] 



Annual Summary of Laboratory Results on the City Water 





Average 


Maximum 


Minimum 




Raw 


Tap 


Raw 


Tap 


Raw 


Tap 


Color 


57 


11 


200 


25 


40 


5 


Turbidity 


51 


1 


400 


5 


5 





Total Hardness 


12 


29 


14 


34 


10 


26 




12 

8 


21 


24 


31 


3 


13 


Chloride 


8 


51 


51 


5 


5 


Free Carbon Dioxide 


7 





12 


1 


4 





pH Value 


6.2 


8.5 


6.4 


9.4 


6.0 


7.6 


Bacteria per ml. 37° C 


263 


4 


2000 


85 


20 





B. Coli per 100 ml 


388.6 





585.0 





111.6 








The chemical results given above are in parts per million. 



Removal of Bacteria 





Ave. Bacteria 


Ave. B. Coli 




per ml. 37° C. 


per 100 ml. 


Raw water 


263 


388.6 


Basin effluent 


57 • 


20.3 


Filter effluent 


27 


0.23 


Sterilized effluent (tap).. 


4 


0.0 


Percentage Removal of Bacteria 




Bacteria 


B. Coli 


By sedimentation 


78.4 


94.77 


By ffltration 


52.6 


98.86 


By sterilization _ 


85.1 


100 


Total removal 


98.4 


100 



The sanitary quality of the water delivered to the city was very high throughout 
the year. No members of the B. Coli group were found in samples collected at the plant 
tap, samples collected at various points on the distribution system each month, or in 
samples sent to the State Laboratory of Hygiene. The filtered water without steriliza- 
tion far exceeds the requirements of the U. S. Treasury Standards as to bacterial quality 



Chlorine-Resistant Bacteria 

All the time since the present sanitary engineer has been here and probably since 
the water plant has been in operation organisms have appeared from time to time which 
ferment lactose broth but do not confirm as members of the B. Coli group. Chlorine 
seems to have little effect on them. They are probably non-pathogenic but they should 
be eliminated from the tap water if possible. It has been suggested that a combination 
of chlorine and ammonia, applied prior to filtration, would be effective. This will be 
investigated. 

Laboratory 

The following examinations were made in the laboratory by the sanitary engineer: 



Total plant samples (raw, coagulated, ffltered, and tap) _ 2,979 

Water samples from outside sources 1 , 363 

Feces for typhoid 31 

Blood for typhoid 7 

Urine for typhoid .... 1 

Postmortem for typhoid: Gall bladder 1 

Contents of intestine 1 

Filter sand analyses 8 

Lime analyses 1 

Water samples analyzed for iron 10 

[ 7 ] 



Salt 

The dikes and dams at Toomer's Creek were very effective in keeping salt water 
out of the city mains. Maximum chloride concentrations observed were 51 parts per 
million in the tap water, 3,000 parts per million in Northeast River at Hilton, 2,950 parts 
per million in Cape Fear River at the highway bridge, and 525 parts per million in Cape 
Fear River at Navassa. 

Improvements 

Among improvements made at the water plant during the year are the following: 

1. The clear water reservoir on the hill was covered. This will eliminate possible 
contamination of the drinking water and prevent the growth of taste and odor producing 
algae. 

2. The cross-connection whereby raw river water could have been pumped into 
the city mains was abolished. 

3. A meter was installed on the wash water line. 

4. Two new chlorinators were installed. 

5. A smooth water-tight floor was laid in the pipe gallery. 

6. A gasoline engine stand-by was provided for high pressure pumping. 

7. A new filter was installed. 

8. The boiler room roof was repaired. 

9. Two new electric pumps were installed. 
10. Several of the old filters were overhauled. 

Respectfully submitted, 

L. 1. LASSITER, 

Sanitary Engineer. 



FOOD AND DAIRY INSPECTOR'S REPORT 
For the Year 1936 

Dr. a. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 
Wilmington, N. C. 

Dear Sir: 



I wish to submit the following report for the year 1936: 





Passed 


Condemned 




Cattle 


1,075 


16 




Calves. _. 


830 


7 




Goats _ 


6 







Hogs 


1,421 


21 




Meat products— 






8,750 lbs. 


T. B. tests 


1,263 


2 




Total 


4,595 


46 





Number 
Inspections 

Bakeries 74 

Candy Factories ._. 56 

Commission Houses 325 

Fish and Oyster Stalls 490 

Groceries... 780 

Hotels. 140 

Ice Cream Factories 35 

Meat Markets 1 , 015 

Milk Stations 34 

Restaurants 1 , 155 

Soda Fountains 790 

Dairies . .... 167 

Herds 167 

Dogs.. 424 

Bottling Plants 72 

Slaughter Houses.... 124 



TotaL_ 5,848 

Miles Driven 8,700 



Respectfully submitted, 

R. P. HUFFMAN, 

Food and Dairy Inspector. 



[ 9 ] 



ASSISTANT FOOD AND DAIRY INSPECTOR'S REPORT 
For the Year 1936 

Dr. A. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 

Wilmington, N. C. 
Dear Sir: 

I respectfully submit the following report for the year 1936: 



Nuiiiiber Samples, Average Bacterial Count, Butter Fat, and Total Solids 
for 1936, of All Dairies Producing Milk Sold in New Hanover County 









Average 










NAME 


Grade 


Number 


Bacterial 


Number 


Butter 


Number 


Total 






Samples 


Count 


Samples 


Fat 


Samples 


Solids 


Blake, H. C 


A 


24 


6,500 


23 


4.04 


23 


12.81 


Botevsky. 


A 


25 


10,000 


23 


3.84 


23 


12.61 


Clemmons 


A 


22 


3,300 


22 


4.07 


22 


12.88 


Drevj^n 


A 


21 


5,500 


21 


4.13 


21 


12.99 


Dixon. 


A 


22 


11,000 


20 


4.03 


20 


12.83 


Garrett 


A 


24 


4,500 


24 


4.32 


24 


13.24 


Harrell 


A 


24 


4,200 


23 


4.27 


23 


13.81 




A 


23 


17,000 


23 


4.15 


23 


13.00 




A 


26 


6,000 


25 


3.97 


25 


12.80 


Leeuwenburg Dairy 


A* 


24 


3,000 


22 


3.63 


22 


12.40 


McEachern 


A* 


24 


4,600 


24 


3.64 


24 


12.41 


McEachern 


A 


24 


5,500 


24 


3.80 


24 


12.57 


Meade 


A 


22 


8,500 


22 


4.50 


22 


12.78 


Smith 


A 


18 


7,600 


17 


4.53 


17 


13.44 


Swart 


A* 


24 


1,300 


23 


4.29 


23 


13.14 


Swart 


A 


24 


3,200 


21 


4.20 


21 


13.04 


Taylor 


A 


17 


5,000 


16 


4.17 


16 


13.08 


Vanderwal 


A 


22 


5,000 


20 


4.03 


20 


12.84 


White's 


A* 


25 


4,600 


25 


3.95 


25 


12.75 


OUT OF 
















BUSINESS 
















Blake, A. M 


A 


5 


11,000 


5 


3.70 


5 


12.46 


Hollis 


A 


4 


9,000 


4 


4.30 


4 


13.16 


Johnson 


A 


5 


13,100 


5 


4.20 


5 


13.04 



Number of Samples and Bacterial Averages of Milk to Pastuerizing Plant 











Average 




NAME 


Grade 


Number 


Bacterial 








Samples 


Count 


Hermitage 


A 


48 


5,300 


Invershiel 


A 


48 


10,000 


Kromalav 


B 


48 


15,000 


Leeuwenburg, John 




A 


47 


18,000 


Plevier. 




A 


48 


16,000 


Sanderson 


B 


24 


20,000 


St. Helena Colony. 


B 


74 


26,000 


Wood 


A 


47 


4,700 


OUT 


OF BUSINESS 






Batts 




B 


24 


7,000 


Cox. 


A 


12 


12,500 


Quinlivan 


A 


48 


12,000 



Laboratory Report 



Bacterial Analyses 930 

Butter Fat Analyses 434 

Total Solids Computed 432 

Inspections 477 

Conferences 338 

Miles Driven._ 10,851 

*Pasteurized. 



[ 10 1 



Bacterial Count of All Milk Sold in New Hanover County 



Sold Direct to Consumer 



January 5,400 

February 4,100 

March 6,200 

April 3,500 

May 10,000 

June 5,600 

July. 15,000 

August - 6,200 

September 7,600 

October 5,500 

November 3,000 

December 2,800 



Pasteurized Before Going 
to Consumer 



January 10,000 

February 8,000 

March 9,000 

April 13,000 

May 16,000 

June 27,000 

July 16,000 

August 17,000 

September 16,000 

October 13,000 

November 8,000 

December _ 8,000 



Butter Fat and Total Solitds Averages, by Months, of All Milk Sold 
in New Hanover County 



MONTHS 



January..... 
February- 
March 

April _ 

May . 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October.... 
November. 
December. 



Butter Fat 


Total Solids 


Average 


Average 


4.16 


13.00 


4.06 


12.94 


3.99 


12.54 


3.94 


12.71 


4.17 


12.85 


3.99 


12.77 


3.98 


12.78 


3.91 


12.70 


4.03 


12.83 


4.29 


13.15 


4.26 


13.11 


4.22 


13.30 



Bacterial Count Summary, 1936 
(Milk Direct to Consumer) 
75.95% of all samples showed a bacterial count of less than 10,000 per cc. 
88.42% of all samples showed a bacterial count of less than 25,000 per cc. 

7.57% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 25,001 and 50,000 per cc. 

1.56% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 50,001 and 100,000 per cc. 

1.56% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 100,001 and 200,000 per cc. 

0.22% of ail samples showed a bacterial count between 200,001 and 300,000 per cc. 

0.00% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 300,001 and 500,000 per cc. 

0.22% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 500,001 and 1,000,000 per cc. 

0.45% of all samples showed a bacterial count of over 1,000,000 per cc. 



Milk Pastuerized Before Going to Consumer 

48.50% of all samples showed a bacterial count of less than 10,000 per cc. 
75.84% of all samples showed a bacterial count of less than 25,000 per cc. 
15.59% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 25,001 and 50,000 per cc. 
2.76% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 50,001 and 100,000 per cc. 
2.98% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 100,001 and 200,000 per cc. 
0.63% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 200,001 and 300,000 per cc. 
1.15% of all samples showed a bacterial count between 300,001 and 500,000 per cc. 
.63% of all sam^ples showed a bacterial count between 500,001 and 1,000,000 per cc. 
.42% of all samples showed a bacterial count of over 1,000,000 per cc. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. B. EDWARDS, 
^ Assistant Food and Dairy Inspector. 



[ 11 I 



DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORY REPORT 
For the Year 1936 





WHITE 


COLORED 


Total 


Pos. 


Neg. 


Pos. 


Neg. 


Throat swabs for Vincent's angina 

Throat cultures for diphtheria 


8 
27 
1 
26 
9 
2 
1 
6 


39 
225 
11 
67 
152 
1 
1 

30 


4 
5 
3 

89 
4 
12 


3 
44 

4 
173 
11 

6 

2 
40 


54 
301 

19 
355 
176 

21 
4 

78 


Sputa for tuberculosis 

Smears for gonorrhea 

Feces for parasites 


Spinal fluid for meningoccocus 


White blood count 


Malaria 


2 


Differential blood count 
















WHITE 


COLORED 


1,485 


Urinalyses 


453 


1,032 





Respectfully submitted, 

SARA C. CANTWELL, 
Laboratory Technician. 



[12] 



WILMINGTON PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING ASSOCIATION 
Report for the Year 1936 





This 
Year 


Last 
Year 


Co. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


High 
School 


6 


7 


Maternity 
and 
I Infancy 


Tuberculosis 
New patients 


31 
480 

847 
4,253 

570 
2,159 

42 
916 

651 


41 
294 


4 
50 

85 
399 

124 

362 

2 

149 

155 
1,047 

58 
210 

1,289 
1,110 

686 




4 

68 

306 
816 

51 
198 

7 

156 

85 
644 

194 
325 

304 
329 
444 


1 

28 

156 
732 

45 
192 

3 
142 

89 
689 

90 
254 

499 
438 
495 

16 


3 

57 

87 
828 

18 
96 

19 
88 

25 
396 

96 
487 

369 
358 
579 

TO 


1 
31 




11 

89 

60 
409 

33 
124 

1 

39 

52 
223 

56 
128 

761 
758 
916 

46 


7 

157 

95 
441 

24 
93 

3 
77 

33 
176 

81 
130 




Home visits 






Morbidity 
New patients „ 


58 






Home visits 


3,141 


628 
18 






Maternity 

New patients, A. P 

Home visits 






2,141 
858 


108 




986 

42 
214 

178 
2,255 


New patients, P. P.. 
Home visits 


1 
51 

32 
493 

34 
303 

227 
248 
409 

10 




Infant Welfare 
New patients 




Home visits 


5,923 

609 
1,837 

5,245 
4,840 
4,065 

01 Q 

zio 
528 
67 
978 
9,802 

182 
182 

685 
796 
210 


5,941 




Pre-School 
New patients 




Home visits 


1,601 

3,953 
3,012 
3,146 

1 O s 

1,058 
58 
893 
6,940 

237 
480 

1,280 
2,381 
160 






School Hygeine 
Children Exam, by Nurse 


979 
911 


817 
688 
536 

45 




Home visits 




Corrections Made 
Teeth. 


10 


51 




Eyes 




20 
70 
651 

17 


2 
71 
252 

12 


4 
87 
453 

24 


6 

65 
310 

17 


31 
177 
4,091 


3 

150 
1,568 

32 


1 

185 
2,394 

37 




Nurses visits to Schools- 
Dressings done in Schools 
Communicable disease 
visits 


173 
83 

43 




Nurses visits to Clinic 

Immunizations 
Smallpox 


























Typhoid- _ 




















Diptheria Toxoid— 









































COLUMBIA MUNDS, R. N., 
Supervising Nurse. 



[ 13 ] 



JAMES WALKER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL REPORT 
For the Year 1936 

Dr. a. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 

Wilmington, N. C. 
Dear Sir: 

We hand you herewith a report of the charity patients admitted and discharged 
for the year 1936: 



Number remaining in hospital January 1, 1936 64 

Number admitted during 1936 2,771 



Total 2,835 

Number discharged during 1936 2,773 

Number remaining in hospital January 1, 1937 62 



Total 2,835 

Births (included in admissions) 413 (Inc. 18 S. B.) 

Deaths (included in discharges) 194 (Inc. 18 S. B.) 

Of these deaths there were: 

Institutional _ 104 

Within 48 hours 90 (Inc. 18 S. B.) 

Charity hospital days for the year 25,946 



Included in these days are 2,672 part pay days. 

Very truly yours, 
JAMES WALKER MEMORIAL HOSPITAL, 
Newton Fisher, Superintendent. 
By James S. Hall, M. D. 



SANITARY INSPECTORS' REPORT 
For the Year 1936 



INSPECTIONS 



City 



County 



White.... 
Colored. 



Total. 



Rural water supplies improved... 
Urban water supplies improved.. 
Rural privies built or improved.. 
Urban privies built or improved. 

New sewers laid. 

New sewer connections 

Houses condemned 

Water samples taken 

Quarantines 

Court convictions 



Miles driven, county inspector. 



15,429 
15,368 



39,797 



9 
7 
71 
96 
112 
76 
599 
169 
1 



4,195 
2,475 



6,670 

11 

302' 
28 
50 
49 

610 
80 
2 



[ 14 ] 



PLUMBING INSPECTOR'S REPORT 
For the Year 1936 

Dr. a. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 

Wilmington, N. C. 
Dear Sir: 



I hereby submit a report of the inspection of plumbing made by me in New Hanover 
County, from January 1, 1936 through December 31, 1936. Number of fixtures in- 
spected are as follows: 





Jan. 


Feb. 


March 


April 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Toilets 


13 
13 
7 
9 
4 
3 


17 
11 

5 
6 


37 
33 
14 
24 
3 


47 
38 
16 
18 
1 
2 


66 
65 
20 
35 
2 
2 


26 
30 
9 
16 
2 
1 


35 
33 
8 
21 


38 
36 
21 
21 
4 
1 


51 
62 
21 
28 


24 
19 
21 
18 
1 
1 


51 
47 
41 
5 


54 
45 
20 
8 
5 
22 


Lavatories 


Bath Tubs 


Sinks 


Showers 


Sewers 


4 


6 


4 


1 


Sewer Stops 




Urinals 






1 


1 








1 
1 
1 










Laundry Trays 




















Slop Hoppers 


1 


3 


2 


1 


2 


4 


5 


5 








Relays 








Floor Drains 




1 


2 












2 


1 






Dental Chairs 


















Septic Tanks 


























Fountains 





















































Total Number of Fixtures Inspected 1,397 

Trusting that this meets with your approval, I remain. 

Yours truly, 

R. M. KERMON, 
Plumbing Inspector of New Hanover County. 



INCINERATOR REPORT 
For the Year 1936 



Number of loads of trash destroyed 24,478 

Number of loads of garbage destroyed 977 

Number of animals destroyed 39 

Number of bushels of flower bulbs destroyed 675 

Average cost per ton refuse destroyed 61 cents 



r 



[ 15 ] 



DRAINAGE SUPERVISOR'S REPORT 
For the Year 1936 

Dr. a. H. Elliot, County Health Officer, 

Wilmington, N. C. 
Dear Sir: 

I wish to submit the following report of work done for the year beginning April 1 and 



ending October 31, 1936: 

Number times oiled regular route 13 

Number times oiled at Eagle Island 13 

Number times oiled at County Home 13 

Number times oiled at Red Cross Sanatorium 13 

Number times oiled at Winter Park, Seagate, Wrightsville 13 

Number times oiled at Boy Scout Camp 9 

Number times oiled at Greenfield Lake 13 

Number times oiled at Carolina, Wilmington, Kure's Beaches 11 

Number times oiled at Dow Chemical Company. 11 

Number barrels and tanks oiled at Eagle Island 13 times 144 

Number places of discarded automobiles oiled 13 times 6 

Number fire barrels nitrocaked - 109 

Number tanks nitrocaked at Cement Products Company 40 

Number fire barrels oiled 13 times 81 

Number sand traps oiled 13 times 1,221 

Number gallons No. 4 mosquito oil used 7,291 

Number ponds oiled in county 13 times ... , 39 

Number inspections made in county _ 747 

New ditches dug by W. P. A. labor _ Miles 21 

Number ponds drained by W. P. A. labor 63 

Ponds drained by W. P. A. labor Acres 360.60 

Swamp drained by W. P. A. labor Acres 75.50 

Clearing by W. P. A. labor Acres 48.36 

Number families visited in county 460 

Number people visited in county 2 , 103 

Number people with symptoms of malaria 4 

Number people with no symptoms of malaria 2 , 099 

Number houses screened 363 

Number houses not screened 97 



Equipment and tools on hand October 31, 1936: 1 Chevrolet truck, 1 trailer, 1 150- 
gallon oil drum, 1 110-gallon oil drum, 38 50-gallon oil drums, 1,300 gallons refuse oil, 
1 crosscut saw, 1 boat, 6 buckets, 4 fertilizer rakes, 3 mud scoops, 1 club axe, 11 pea rakes > 
5 long handle rakes, 3 grass blades, 14 shovels, 16 brush hooks, 3 weed hoes, 2 hay knives, 
4 mattocks, 1 crowbar, 1 grab hook, 2 picks, 1 grindstone, 1 funnel, 5 knapsack sprays. 

Respectfully submitted, 
G. T. MORGAN, 

Drainage Supervisor. 



16] 



TABLE No. 1 



MORTALITY STATISTICS FOR CITY OF WILMINGTON AND NEW HANOVER COUNTY FOR THE YEAR 1936 



CAUSES OF DEATH 


City and County 


Last Year 


CITY 


COUNTY 


DEATHS BY AGE 


White 


Black 


Total 


White 


Black 


3 
(2 


Under 1 






5-15 


15-25 


I 


45-65 


65-100 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


1. TVphoid tever.... 

2. Malaria Fever 

3. Smallpox 

4. Measles... 

5. Scarlet Fever. 

6. Whooping Cough 

7. Diphthena 


709 
1 

2> 
2> 


699 
2' 

32 


160 


137 

i"" 


151 
1 


140 


588 
1 

2'" 
2' 
7 

1 

17 
1 

3 

294 
67' 
110» 
308 
36= 

2 

14' 
72 

118 

3 

51" 


31 


35 


28 


27 


121 


85 


16 

"i"" 


18 


23 

i'" 


57 


145 
1 


211 


154 


8. Influenza 

9. Dysentery 

10. Other Epidemic Diseases 

11. Tetanus 

12. PeUagra 

13. Pulmonary Tuberculosis 

14. Other Forms Tuberculosis. 

15. S.vphilis . 

16. Cancer and Other Malignant Tumors. 

17. Cerebral Hemorrhage: „ 

18. Orgamc Heart Disease. 

19. Broncho Pneumonia. — 

20. Other Forms Pneumonia... 

21. Other Respiratory Diseases „ 

22. Diseases of Stomach. 

23. Diarrheal Diseases 

24. .\ppendicitis and Typhilitis 

25. Hernia, Intestinal Obstruction.. 

26. Cirrhosis of Liver 

27. Nephritis 

28. Diseases of Women (not cancer) 

29. Puerperal Septicemia. 

30. Other Puerperal Diseases 

31. Congenital Debility and Malformation 

32. Old Age 

33. Suicide 

34. Automobile Accidents 

35. Other Accidents 

36. Homicide.- 

37. Diabetes... 

38. All Other Causes 

Total, Excluding Non-Residents... 

Death Rates per 1,000 


7 

13' 
1 
1 

381 

2 

6 
384 
82' 
137" 
37" 
40' 

2 

2114 

72 
11-1 
3 

57' 


112 

22" 

3'' 
29 

1' 

5 
43 
723 
1408 
368 
408 

2 

23' 8 
42 
8* 
2 

585 


3 

r> 

2" 

2 

9' 
12 
29" 

9' 
152 

54 
2' 
42 
1 

10' 


2 

2'" 
1 

9'" 
12 
292 

82 
102 

42 ■ 
2' 
3' 
1 
12 


7" 
1 

3 

i" 

3' 
22 
24 

4 

9 

5'' 

1 

1 

13 


3" 
.......... 

1 

8'" 
21' 
28> 
9 
2' 

2 

2 
3 

"ii" 


3 

4 
4 
62 
42 
32 

22" 


2" 

i ' 

4 
11 
2' 

5S 


5' 

1 

1 

1 

5 

6 

3 


'W 
i 

2 
4 

2 


-2jf 

3 
9 

272 
78 
42 

"""v" 

6" 


2 

i ' 

1 

32 

10' 
1' 


1 


1 
2 
4' 

42 

1" 


ii' 
i " 


1 

2 

i""" 

2 
41 
1 
3 

3 

i'" 


" 23 
4 

20' 
2 

U' 

2 

4 
2 

Til" 


..... 
7 

..... 

248 
39 
55' 

71 

91 

22" 
41 
3 
18 


" 1 " 

7 
29 
541 
131 

6 

~22~ 


52" 

9» 

2 

2 

6 

90 
378 
W 

63 

11130 

595 
13.3 


2' 

88 
108 
6 
51 

■ 4811 

112 

■l23i« 

598 

13.5 


4" 
32 
8 
2' 
22 
35'4 
120 

12 


22' 
64 

1 
1 

i"" 

4' 
1 

3' 
21s 
111 
4 


32' 
128 

92 

1 
278 
137 

20 


3" 
32 

i" ' 

1 

22 
2 
1' 

■■■'202' 
129 
7 


52 

90 

2 

2 

5 

96 
264 
134 

68 

10328 

497 
15.7 


21 

5 


i " 

i" 

6*" 
25 

1 


52 
1 

26 

12 


2 

26 

7 


i 

-JJ4- 

1 

84' 
98 
7.5 


2" 
2" 
56 


"""'i'i' 

7 


2' 
11 


--- 
32' 

5 
2' 
1 

53 
15 


2 ■ 
33 

i"" 
54" 

62 
22 
8' 
42 


53 

3" 

91 
61 
H 
134 
127 


""'2" 
38 

112 

- - 

188 
188 


2~ 

81 
149 



Non-residents to be deducted in small numerals. 



TABLE No. 2 

COMPARATIVE VITAL STATISTICS, CITY OF WILMINGTON 



1936 


1935 


1934 


1933 


1 

1932 

1 


1931 


1930 


1929 


1928 


1927 




1926 


1925 


1924 


1923 


1922 


1921 


1920 


1919 


1918 


1917 


1916 


31,555 


31,665 


31,775 


31,885 


31,995 


32,160 


32,270 
890 


32,380 
829 


32,490 


32,600 


3 


,710 


32,820 


32,930 


33,040 


33,150 


33,260 


33,370 


32,360 


31,844 


31,082 


30,320 


900«5 


844" 


798" 


780 


873 


799 


872 


922 




1,010 


981 


997 


1,059 


1,104 


1,012 


875 


705 


70S 


7SS 












































80 








































713 


527 


443 








































100 


130 


108 




































120.5 


126.8 


141.4 


184.5 


143.0 








































8 


2 


4 

















































































5 
































































2' 


32 



































1 


2 


3 













































2 













































4 









































48 




52 


43 




































21 


21 


22 


19 


17 


110" 


113' 


1018 


916 


79' 


74' 


100= 


112" 


108= 


82'" 




60» 


756 


706 


522 


55 


48 


53 


36 


72 


68 


29 


668 


64" 


153 


429 


526 


62* 


6I» 


58» 


7710 


58' 




69« 


60>3 


59» 


46* 


68 


SO 


44 


56 


225 


58 


46 


36= 


38' 


103 


30» 


366 


42* 


39s 


408 


466 


322 




40' 


416 


42* 


St-' 


47 


33 


25 


37 


78 


34 


34 


303 






































147 


24 


12 


10' 






































55 


52 


37 


51' 


503 


































57 


51 


60 


62 


14* 


10* 


































10 


3 


10 


9 


52 


8' 


7» 


9 


16' 


5 


10' 


7' 




7 




7 


3 


16 


17 


18 


39 


30 


68 


50 


39 


27 








1 














21 


13 


1 




6 


66 


28 




1 


6 


23 







7 





1 


17' 


101 


1,700 


6 


31 


4 


3 


784 


1,304 




25 


4 


709 






1,469 


12 


17 


124 


445 


75 


23' 


10 


162 


32 




36 


44 


37 


17 






37 


40 


26 


41 


33 


49 




43 


2 


11 


IS 


17 


150 


297 


29 


341 


362 


357 


28 


48 


341 




270 


72 


66 


460 


120 


19 


192 


178 


221 


107 


13 


28' 3 


5 


299 


23 


29' 


536 


69' 


93i> 


43 


38 




34 


20 


23 


37 


52 




62 


44 


15 


30 


20 



1 Population- 
Total Live Births. 

Total Stillbirths.- 

Deaths— .yi .\gcs 

Deaths— Under One Ye 
Infant Mortality Rate.. 



DE.4IHS Frou Pkincip.u. Dise.4; 

Tj-phoid Fever-_ 

Smallpox. 

Measles 

Scarlet Fever... . 

Whooping Cough.- 

Diphtheria..- 

Influeiui 

Tuberculosis. Fo.-ms 

Organic Heart Disease 

Pneumonia, .Ml Forms... 

Pneumonia, Lobar and Undefined. 

Pneumonia. Broncho 

Diarrheaand Enteritis! Under Two Yrs.) 



Puerperal 5l 



Coimrxic.iBLE Diseases Repoeted: 

T\-phoid Fever 

Smallpox 

I Scarlet Fever. -...-l-ZZIZZl^Z" 

Whooping Cough 

j Diphtheria. . 



to be 



TABLE No. 3 

CRUDE DEATH RATE PER THOUSAND, CITY OF WILMINGTON 
(Non-R€sidents Excluded) 



1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 
1917. 
1918. 
1919. 
1920. 
1921. 
1922. 
1923. 
1924. 
1925. 
1926. 
1927. 
1928. 
1929. 
1930. 
1931. 
1932. 
1933. 
1934. 
1935. 
1936. 



White 


Black 


Total 


21.0 


37.0 


28.5 


15.2 


29.6 


22.0 


14.1 


27.2 


20.2 


13.3 


27.9 


20.2 


12.5 


23.9 


17.9 


10.7 


18.7 


14.5 


12.4 


21.7 


16.8 


20.4 


24.1 


22.2 


13.0 


18.9 


16.2 


12.5 


23.3 


16.9 


13.6 


20.7 


16.4 


11.3 


22.6 


15.8 


9.1 


21.6 


13.8 


9.2 


22.4 


14.5 


9.9 


20.6 


14.3 


10.3 


19.4 


14.0 


9.2 


22.4 


14.6 


13.2 


21.0 


16.4 


11.8 


22.2 


16.0 


11.8 


22.8 


16.2 


10.0 


21.8 


14.8 


10.5 


19.2 


14.1 


11.1 


20.4 


14.3 


12.3 


21.1 


15.1 


12.1 


21.5 


16.0 


12.4 


20.7 


15.7 



TABLE No. 4 
BIRTHS 
CITY AND COUNTY 
For the Year 1936 





White 


Black 


Total 


Grand 
Total 
M.&F. 


M 


F 


M 


F 


W 


B 


W.&B. 


CITY 
















Births (exclusive of stillbirths) 


298 


260 


188 


154 


558 


342 


900 


Stillbirths 


8 


8 


15 


15 


16 


30 


46 


COUNTY 
















Births (exclusive of stillbirths) 


11 


15 


3 


4 


26 


7 


33 


Stillbirths 




1 






1 




1 















White 


Black 


Total 


Birth Rate, City alone... 


30.1 


26.5 


28.5 


Birth Rate, County outside City. 


2.9 


1.7 


2.5 


Birth Rate, City and County. _._ 


21.2 


20.5 


20.9 



Total Deaths in City Under One Year of Age to 1,000 Live Births 

(Stillbirths and Non-Residents Excluded) 





Deaths Under 
1 Year 


Total Live 
Births 


Ratio 


This Year 


57 
62 


900 
844 


63.3 
80.3 


Last Year 





TABLE No. 5 



INFANT MORTALITY, CITY OF WILMINGTON, 1936 











WHITE 


COLORED 


DEATHS BY AGE 






tal 1936 


tal 1935 




1 


1 




Female 


Total 


ess than 1 
ne hour 


;ss than 
ne hour 


One hour 
to one 
day 


One day 
to one 
week 


One week 
month 


One month 
to two 
months 


Two 
months 

to six 
months 


Six 
months 
to twelve 
months 








H 


1 




H 


1 


Wl 


° 


W 


c 


W 


c 


W 


c 


W 


c 


W 


c 


W 


c 


All Causes.- 




74 


81 


5 


18 


43 


19 


12 


31 


6 


6 


12 


4 


9 


4 


3 


2 


2 


4 


4 


7 


7 


4 


1. Measles 














































2. Scarlet Fever 














































3. Whooping-Cough 




21 










































4. Diphtheria. 






































........ 


........ 






5. Influenza 




3 




1 


1 


1 


































6. Dysentery 














































7. Erysipelas 














....... 


"T 






























8. Meningicoccus Meningitis 

9. Tetanus 












































1 


10. Tuberculosis, Respiratory. 




























































































12. Tuberculosis, Other Forms 


















































3 








































::::::: 


14. Convulsions 








....... 




































15. Bronchitis 


f" 






"i" 






























i" 








16. Broncho Pneumonia 


5 


5 ' 








....... 


....... 


"s" 
























3"" 




2 


17. Pneumonia.-., 


21 


72 


'■"21 




■■■■■j-i 
































"i'l" 




18. Diseases of Stomach. 














































19. Diarrhea and Enteritis 


73" 








"53 






""2 






























20. Congenital Malformation 


3 






1 




2 




2 






























21. Congenital Debility 




31 










































22. Prematurity.- 


3211 


211 


116 


83 


199 


71 


-"(,1 


"1^2 












"2" 


■■■•22 - 


"i" 




2 " 










23. Injury at Birth 


61 


51 


21 


72 




1 


1 


1 


1 


^1 




41 




















24. Other Diseases of Infancy. 








































........ 




25. External Causes 


2 


2 






2 
























"T" 












26. Unknown or HI Defined 

27. All Other Causes _ 

Total, Non-Residents Excluded 

Total Live Births.-... 


101 

56 
90005 


111 
62 
844" 


1 

31 

14 

298 


13 
260 


41 
27 
558 


""""4 
18 
188 


...... 

11 

154 


...... 

29 
342 


...... 


5 


......... 


1 

3 


"3 " 
7 


T 
4 




........ 


1 

'2' 


""i " 

4 




1 

7 


" Ti" 
3 


4 


Mortality Rates per 1,000 


69.4 


80.3 











































Non-residents to be deducted in small numerals. 



I 

TABLE No. 6 

CARE OF MOTHERS AT TIME OF BIRTH OF THEIR CHILDREN, 1936 





CITY 




COUNTY 










WHITE 






COLORED 












WHITE 




COLORED 






y Birtl 


















































1 














































Coui 


6 










































w 






T3 




















(3 






















>;. 






s 




irths 








irths 


1 






City 






irths 








irths 








Coun 




City 


City 




LiveB 


Stillbir 


Total 




Live B 


Stillbir 


Total 




Total 






LiveB 


Stillbir 


Total 




LiveB 


Stillbir 


Total 




Total 


Total 


Total 


Total 


Delivered by physicians in hospitals 

Delivered by physicians in homes 


533 


16 


549 


95.6 


289 


25 


314 


84.4 


863 


91 


2 






















863 


88.0 


22 




22 


3.8 


10 


2 


12 


3.2 


34 


3 


5 


24 




25 


92.6 


3 




3 


42.8 


28 


82.3 


62 


6.3 


Total delivered by physicians _ 


555 


16 


571 


99.4 


299 


27 


326 


87.6 


897 


94 


8 


24 


1 


25 


92.6 


3 




3 


42.8 


28 


82.3 


925 


94.3 


Delivered by midwives. 


3 




3 


.52 


43 


3 


46 


12.4 


49 


5 


2 


2 




2 


7.4 


4 




4 


57.1 


6 


17.6 


55 


5.6 


Unattended 






























Total Births 


'5S8"" 


16 


574 




342 


30 


372 




946 






26 


1 


27 




7 




7 




34 




980 





TABLE No. 7 

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES REPORTED DURING YEAR 1936 





CITY 


COUNTY 


TOTAL 


vjrranQ 

JL Utdi 


White 


Black 


White 


Black 


City 


County 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


TJir\ n f n ATI a 


127 


126 


2 


2 


8 


12 


2 


12 


2813 


34 


6213 


Chickenpox. 


32 


36 


2 


10 


35 


39 


1 


1 


80 


76 


156 


Scarlet Fever 


6 


161 




1 


3 


5 






231 


8 


311 


Typhoid Fever 


21 


11 


2 


1 




1 


1 


52 


3 


82 


Typhus Fever 


31 










21 






31 


21 


52 


Malaria 






1 


1 










2 




2 


Meningitis 


11 


22 


9 


4 






1 




163 


1 


173 


Infantile Paralysis 














Pellagra 


1 


7 




4 


4 


4 


1 




12 


9 


21 


Pneumonia 


1 














1 




1 


Ophthalmia 




















Neonatorum 
















1 




1 


1 


Whooping-Cough 


7 


1 


6 


3 




1 




17 


1 


18 




8 


8 


10 


22 


21 


11 


3 


5 


48 


112 


592 


Influenza 


1 


3 


6 


12 








1 


22 


1 


23 


Measles 


1 












1 




1 


German Measles 


2 


3 














5 




5 


Undulant Fever 


1 


1 














2 




2 


Gonorrhea 


21 


8 


73 


66 


5 


1 


11 


9 


168 


26 


194 


S3T)hilis 


11 


12 


99 


171 


2 


4 


15 


21 


293 


42 


335 


Chancroid 


5 




31 


10 






2 


1 


46 


3 


49 















Non-residents in small numerals. 



TABLE No. 8 



MATERNAL MORTALITY RATES FOR PAST TWENTY-THREE YEARS 
In Five and One Year Periods 
(Pei; 1,000 Live Births) 
Wilmington and New Hanover County 







LIVE BIRTHS 




STILLBIRTHS 






















Grand 












Total 






Total 


Total 




White 


Rate 


Colored 


Rate 


Live 


White 


Colored 


stm- 














Births 






Births 




1914-1918 


2,426 


13.6 


2,229 


12.1 


4,655 


119 


383 


502 


5,157 


1919-1923 


3,587 


11.1 


2,455 


14.2 


6,042 


102 


279 


381 


6,423 


1924-1928 


3,342 


8.9 


2,232 


15.6 


5,574 


93 


194 


287 


5,861 


1929-1933 


2,813 


9.5 


1,831 


21.8 


4,644 


112 


183 


295 


4,939 


TOTAL 


12,168 


10.6 


8,747 


15.6 


20,915 


426 


1,039 


1,465 


22,380 


Total Rate Over 20 Vear P^rinH- 












12.7 


1934 


50335 


4.2 


3437 


11.9 


84642 








Total Rate 1934 








7.4 


1935 


52763 


6.4 


3659 


8.4 


89272 


17 


36 


53 


Total Rate 1935 


7.3 


1936 


58482 


3.9 


34913 


11.9 


93395 


17 


30 


47 




Total Rate 1Q36 


7.2 





















CAUSES OF MATERNAL DEATHS FOR PAST TWENTY YEARS 





Eclampsia 


Septic Infection 


Hemorrhage 


All Other Causes 


Total 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


1914-1918 


17 


13 


4 


5 


3 


3 


9 


6 


60 


1919-1923 


17 


14 


5 


6 


6 


2 


12 


13 


75 


1924-1928 


12 


11 


2 


13 


3 


3 


13 


8 


65 


1929-1933 


8 


14 


6 


10 


2 


4 


11 


12 


67 


TOTAL 


54 


52 


17 


34 


14 


12 


45 


39 


267 


1934 


11 


1 


11 


32 


11 


1 


2 


32 


137 


1935 


31 


11 




31 






21 


1 


10* 


1936 


21 


21 


22 


3 




11 


43 


148 









Non-residents in small numerals. 









Fig. No . 3 














Typhoid Feve 


^ Death Rate, City of 

[Per Hundred Thousand) 




1/lLMINGTON 































— 











City of Wilmington -- 
!J. S. Registration Ari 


-A 


























1 ~\ 


i i 1 1 


! t i ! 


1 i I ! 


\ \ \ ' 


! ! i 1 


! 1 1 i ! i 1 r ! i 



\ Entero Coi 


Fig. No. 4 

IT IS Death Rat 


City of WilmIngton 






(Per Hundred 1 


housand) 














































Mil 


Mil 


i i 1 1 1 ! i 1 i t 1 1 I 



1910 



1915 



1920 



1925 



1930 



jFiG. No- 5 



livlALARiA Death ffiATE, City of ft 



(Per Hundred 



1936 1910 



Thousand) 



n-TT—r-r\ i ! i i i fl i i il n 



1915 



1920 



1925 



1930 



1936 



369! 
320 
280 
240 

200 

160 

120 


160 
140 

120 



Fig. No. 6 


Organic Heart 
City of" WiLvUn 


)EATH Rate, 

3T0N 


/ 

V 


(Per 


Hundred Thousan 


^) / " ■ 

/ : 


/ 






/ 


\ 
\ 

.; , ., /„ 






— / 


\/ 


/ ■\ 
/ \ 
\ 


"V—r-J- 


\/- 




—i V- 

/ \ / 

■ / 








' i ! : 




! I ! 1 





1^6 



1916/; 



1920 



1925 



1930 



1 — 1 

■, Infan 


Fig. No. 7 
r iVbRTALiTY Rati 






\ ^' 


rV OF '/lllLM»NGTOt 


















I \ 

\ 





























60 



1915 1920 



1925 



1- -T 
1930 



T9^6 



Fig. Ho. 8 


Seasonal 
Mew Hanover 


Incidence of Deaths 1925 to 1936 
:)ounty Including Cjty of '<Vilmington 












Rates Per 


Thous 


AND 














1 


















i 




















^ i y 


















\ 












Jan 


1 Feb 1 iviAR i Apr 


Y j June j July \ Aug 1 Sept ! Oct \ Nov j Dec 



900- 

750 

600 



300 

150 





rt 

; \ dege 


Fig. No. 9I 

ierative and Acute 


Infectious Diseas 


E Death Hhtes 


' — \ — 

;■■ \ 


New Hanover Jount 
City of VJiLiuit^GTO 


i Includinq''' ''•.^ 




/ ; 








/' 








"Degenerat I VE 
Acute Infect 10 


)S 


/"\, 














1 j ! 




i i i ! 





1916 



1920 



192^ 



1930 



Fig. No. 10 

Diphtheria Death Rates mND Case Rates (Per Hundred Thousand) 
City of Wilmington 



Death Rate |S 
Case Rate l 



1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 mC 1927 1926 1929 19301931 1932 1933 1934 193^-' 1936 



Im thf PRFP-RATION of these graphs, «LL death CERTfFlCATES F1 tED 1 N -THE COONTY, EXCEPT STILLBIRTHS AND NON-RESIDENTS, WERE USED 
l-HE pLmON OF THE STRAIGHT LINE AND THE YEARLY AVERAGE GAIN WERE DETERMINED B Y THE METHOD OF LF.AST SQU ARES. 




1922 



1925 



1930 



1936 1922 



192^ 



1930- 



18.5 
17-0 
15.5 

14-. 
12.5 
11.0 

8.0 



Fig- No. 16 


WIaternau Death Rate, All Cai 
New Hanove^r County itsiCLUD!NC 


SES (Per 1000 Live Births) 
City of Wilmington 






























\ 






\ 










\ 




















1 1 1 1 i 

^—L—i — J — ' ' — 1 

r — i r i i T— 


1 '.!,._ 1 . 

1 1 i i 


i, i 1 \ 

-i !■ ■ T r- - 


1 ill " 

L u — ! L__^ 


1 1 
1 1 



1914 

14- 



1920 



1925 



1930 



1936 



Fig. No. 1? 


Maternal Death Rates, All Cau 
New HaimOver County Including i 


3E8 Other Than Eclampsia and S 
;iTY OF Wilmington (Per 1000 


;PTIC INFECTION; 

tvE Births) 




11/hite — 




\ 


. 


Black — — 
Total 


























/ ^ • 












1 .1 1 1 1 


, f • 1 ... 1 i , 


1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 i 



1914 



1920 



1925 



1930 



1936 




1914 




1914- 



Fig. No. 20 

nv'i :ases of syphilis and gonorrhea 

Ca.lPARED 'VITH 
OTHER CO IIUIJIJttBLE DISEASES 
IN 

NEW HANOVER JOUNTY INCLUDING OITY vF VIL.ilNGTON 
1936 



Consolidated Board of Health 

WILMINGTON AND NEW HANOVER COUNTY 
NORTH CAROLINA 



ADDISON HEWLETT, Chairman 
Chairman, Board County Commissioners 

H. M. ROLAND, WALTER H. BLAIR, 

Superintendent Public Instruction Mayor, City of Wilmington 

W. HOUSTON MOORE, M. D. J. C. WESSELL, M. D. 

H. L. KEITH, D. D. S. 

OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES AND AFFILIATES 

A. H. Elliot, M. D Health Officer 

G. R. Carpenter, M. D Assistant Health Officer and County Physician 

R. P. Huffman, D, V. M - Food and Dairy Inspector 

L. L Lassiter Sanitary Engineer 

J. B. Edwards Assistant Food and Dairy Inspector 

Mrs. Lamont Smith Secretary 

Mrs. Sara Cant well Laboratory Technician 

R. M. Kermon Plumbing Inspector 

PUBLIC HEALTH NURSES ' 

Miss Columbia Munds _ Supervisor 

Paid by Ministering Circle King's Daughters 

Mrs. Addie Peiffer _ District No. 1 

Paid by Ministering Circle King's Daughters 

Miss Georgia Ezzell County Nurse 

Paid by Board of Health 

Miss Zou Mercer _ District No. 4 

Paid by Wilmington Chapter Red Cross and by Wilmington 
Public Health Nursing Association 

Mrs. Margaret Nixon District No. 3 

Paid by Wilmington Public Health Nursing Association 

Mrs. Jeannette Hall _ County Nurse 

Paid by Board of Health 

Miss Dorothy Bland District No. 2 

Paid by Board of Health 

Leonora Hargrave.... District No. 6 

Paid by Board of Health 

Clifford Richardson District No. 7 

Paid by Board of Health 

SANITARY INSPECTORS 

W. H. Hancammon H. W. Hunter 

F. P. Blanchard Porter Wagstaff 

W. C. Haas 
CD. Rivenbark, Superintendent Incinerator 



White 



Colored 
4,077 
12,872 
16,944 



Total 



Population Rural New Hanover County 8,906 

Population City of Wilmington 18,678 

Total population City and County. 27,581 

Annual appropriation to Health Department 



.$42,321.95 
. 2,500.00 



12,990 
31,555 
44,546 



Appropriation to New Hanover County Mosquito Commission. 
Expeditures of Wilmington Public Health Nursing Association 



(Contributions). 



5,465.03 



Total OflScial Agencies 



.$50,286.98 



Expense of trash, garbage, and scavenging collections is not included in health appro- 



Wilmington's milk supply comes entirely from tuberculin tested cows. 
Wilmington has seventy-one miles of sewer mains. 

Wilmington has a modern and efficient incinerating plant for the destruction of all gar- 
bage and refuse. 

Wilmington is better drained than any southern coastal city. 

Wilmington capital has supplied modern and up-to-date equipment for pasteurization 
of milk, and cold storage of meats and perishable foods. 



WILMINGTON SUPPLIES ITS CITZENS WITH SAFE AND WHOLESOME 



New Hanover County has supplied every school, white and colored, with sanitary toilets. 



priations. 



WATER.